La gag comica e le sue implicazioni filosofiche. Riso critico e comicità fisica nel cinema

  • Maicol Cutrì

Abstract

This essay is divided into two different sections. The first one presents a brief critical account of the main theories about the nature of comic, then a technical analysis of potential representative planes in which these theories can be exploited in films. The sociological function of physical comedy is therefore illustrated in its negative and positive values, and a deeper comprehensive critical function, concerning the way by which men categorize and live among the things of the world, is exemplified. The second section is the historical one, presenting an account of the essential comic solutions in the authorial making during the early mute period of the seventh art: a discussion of the philosophical criticism of such authors as Lumière, Méliès, Chaplin, Keaton, is finally linked with the points previously explained.

References

AA. VV. (1942): Recueil des articles relatifs à George Méliès depuis 1937, Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, coll. département Arts du spectacle, 8-RSUPP-…1025.

Bachtin, M. M. (1979): L’opera di Rabelais e la cultura popolare. Riso, carnevale e festa nella tradizione medievale e rinascimentale, trad. it. di M. Romano, Torino: Einaudi.

Bataille, G. (1976): Conférences 1951-1953, in Idem, Oeuvres complètes, vol. VIII, Paris: Gallimard, pp. 185-242.

Bazin, A. (1958): Introduction a une symbolique de Charlot (1948), in Idem, Qu’est-ce que le cinéma? I. Ontologie et langage, Paris: Éditions du Cerf, pp. 97-106.

Bergson, H. (193845): Le rire. Essai sur la signification du comique, Paris: F. Alcan.

Brakhage, S. (1977): Film Biographies, Berkeley: Turtle Island for the Netzahualcoyotl Historical Society.

Brakhage, S. (1989): Films at the Wit’s End, Kingston (NY): McPherson & Co.

Carlyle, T. (1900): Jean Paul Friedrich Richter (1827), in Idem, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, vol. I, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1900, pp. 1-25.

Chaplin, C. (1916): Charlie Chaplin’s Own Story, Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company.

Child, A. (2011): The Piper’s Son: Content and Performance in the Films of Ken Jacobs, in Optic Antics. The Cinema of Ken Jacobs, ed. by M. Pierson, D. E. James and P. Arthur, New York: Oxford University Press.

Croce, B. (19484): La dottrina del riso in Vico (1910), in Idem, Saggio sullo Hegel, seguito da altri scritti di storia della filosofia, Bari: Laterza, pp. 277-283.

Deleuze, G. (1983): Cinéma 1: l’image-mouvement, Paris: Les éditions de minuit.

Derrida, J. (1990): Dall’economia ristretta all’economia generale. Un hegelismo senza riserve (1967), in Idem, La scrittura e la differenza, trad. it. di G. Pozzi, Torino: …Einaudi.

Freud, S. (1972): Il motto di spirito e la sua relazione con l’inconscio (1905), in Idem, Opere 1905-1908. Il motto di spirito e altri scritti, ed. it. a cura di C. L. Musatti, Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, pp. 3-213.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1978): Estetica, trad. it. di N. Merker e N. Vaccaro, Milano: Feltrinelli.

Henry, J.-J. (1978): L’espace d’un istant, in «Cahiers du cinéma», n° 285, fevrier, pp. 16-19.

Hobbes, T. (1839): Leviathan, in The English Works of Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, ed. by W. Molesworth, vol. III, London: John Bonn.

Kant, I. (1999): Critica del giudizio, a cura di A. Bosi, Torino: UTET, 1999.

Keaton, B. (1960): My Wonderful World of Slapstick, with C. Samuel, Garden City (NY): Doubleday & Company.

Kierkegaard, S. (2013): Il concetto dell’angoscia, in Idem, Le grandi opere filosofiche e teologiche, a cura di C. Fabro, Milano: Bompiani, pp. 356-589.

Kline, L. W. (1907): The Psychology of Humor, in «The American Journal of Psychology», vol. 18, n° 4 (October), pp. 421-441.

Kracauer, S. (2012): Silent Film Comedy (1951), in Idem, American Writings. Essays on Film and Popular Culture, ed. by J. von Moltke and K. Rawson, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London: University of California Press, pp. 213-217.

Lippitt, J. (1991): Philosophical perspectives on humour and laughter, Durham (UK): Durham University Press (http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/6201/).

Mann, T. (20123): Sul cinema (1928), in Idem, Nobiltà dello spirito e altri saggi, a cura di A. Landolfi, Milano: Mondadori, pp. 1211-1214.

Mardore, M. (1962): Le plus bel animal du monde, «Cahiers du cinéma», n° 130, avril, pp. 34-37.

Mars, F. (1960): Autopsie du gag (I), in «Cahiers du cinéma», n° 113, novembre, pp. 22-31.

Morreal, J. (2009): Comic Relif. A Comprehensive Philosophy of Humor, Malden (MA): Wiley-Balckwell.

OED: Oxford English Dictionary (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/).

Panovskj, E. (1966): Style and Medium in the Motion Pictures (1934), in Film: An Anthology, ed. by Daniel Talbot, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London: University of California Press, pp 15-32.

Plessner, H. (2000), Il riso e il pianto. Una ricerca sui limiti del comportamento umano, trad. it. di V. Rasini, Milano: Bompiani.

Ruiz, R. (1978): Les relations d’objects au cinéma, in «Cahiers du cinéma», n° 287, avril, pp. 25-31.

Schopenhauer, A. (1983): Parerga e paralipomena, to. II, a cura di M. Carpitella, Milano: Adelphi.

Schopenhauer, A. (1989): Il mondo come volontà e rappresentazione, a cura di A. Vigliani, Milano: Mondadori.

Spencer, H. (1891): The Physiology of Laughter (1860), in Idem, Essays: Scientific, Political, and Speculative, vol. II, London-Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate, pp. 452-466.

Trahair, L. (2007): The Comedy of Philosophy. Sense and Nonsense in Early Cinematic Slapstick, Albany (NY): State University of New York Press.

Published
2019-03-14
Section
Articles